Are you looking for the pros and cons of OOP (object-oriented programming)? Look no further than our extensive analysis of reasons to and not to use OOP and OOPS (object-oriented programming systems) in your daily life. We cover the use of the type of programming for individual programmers looking to build something themselves as well as huge teams working on a joint project. Moreover, we try to compare it and help you understand why and when to apply it. Without spoiling too much, we can confidently say it will save you a lot of time and effort, but it requires time to master. Now, let’s dig into the advantages and disadvantages of OOP.
Advantages of OOP (object-oriented programming)
First, a reminder that object-oriented programming represents a programming paradigm wherein a project is based (i.e., oriented, organized, and composed) on objects in place of other dialects or rationale and capacity. To elaborate on that, we’ll dive into the upsides of OOP.
1. OOP applies a few well-known concepts
Essentially, OOP breaks down projects or programs depending on the objects, which consist of information with distinct properties and conduct. One of the critical goals of OOP is to achieve a seamless collaboration between data and the functions that operate on it. Even better, OOP uses several popular concepts and terms, including:
- Class — Classes in OOP are templates of a variable and a method used in a specific object. In other words, a class represents a “blueprint” for how objects are made and declared.
- Object — An instance of a class, object permits the use of the aforementioned variables and methods in a class.
- Abstraction — Frequently used in high-level languages, abstraction permits programmers to remove all irrelevant data about an object but lets it remain a representation of the original.
- Polymorphism — Polymorphism details situations when something occurs in several forms, in this case, things that are called by the object’s class. It lets programmers use the same interface to access objects of different types.
- Encapsulation — Encapsulation refers to arranging methods that operate on data with data into one unit.
- Inheritance — Inheritance is a mechanism that permits the use of child and parent classes (one class derives from another) where the child “inherits” methods and properties of the parent.
2. Easy modification and reimplementation of software
Our explanation of the crucial concept should make it clear that OOP permits the use of standard working modules that use specific methods and data to communicate. In other words, projects don’t have to start from scratch—programmers can use bits of code, supported libraries of articles, and aforementioned concepts to modify or reuse objects for their projects. That means starting from scratch is rarely necessary.
3. Simplified maintenance
The advantage of OOP above also helps the maintenance and improvement of existing software. To clarify, programmers can refresh or upgrade a piece of the framework without publishing extensive improvements or changing the structure. Furthermore, objects can employ message-passing techniques to communicate. In one case, that makes describing the interface in external systems relatively straightforward.
4. Productivity boost
The three variables that define OOP, reusability, extensibility, and particularity, are pivotal for increasing productivity. Not only is redundant workload reduced, but the risk of error goes down when base projects have a proven track record. Additionally, each program can be broken down into bit-sized issues, i.e., problems can be resolved one object at a time. Plus, objects can be mapped into a problem domain and shared with everyone in the project. Those things make it clear that work can be partitioned and streamlined.
5. A reduction in development and security costs
Since duties can be separated in an object-based environment, and objects can be reused or extended to behave or look differently, development is faster and cheaper. Because we can reapply or modify existing solutions, more money can be invested in other areas. Another key benefit is that communication in the program can be blocked. Thus, code in one part of a separated program can’t be used to invade another program chunk.
6. Contribution to high-quality software
OOP tries to unite data and corresponding methods, and this data-based approach helps programmers capture more implementable details of a model. Additionally, the availability of ready-made objects and classes helps programmers employ multiple languages and create better software. Moreover, lower development costs mean more funds can be used for testing, debugging, and quality control. All that results in a higher quality of today’s software across the board.
Disadvantages of OOP (object-oriented programming)
Without hesitation, let’s jump into some notable downsides of object-oriented programming (OOP):
1. Not always beginner-friendly
Inheritance, abstraction, and encapsulation are central to object-oriented programming but may require some effort and application to become second nature to beginners. Simply put, the required thought process may seem unnatural to some. That’s why many developers state that OOP is best understood with a solid foundation of other worldviews or paradigms. Additionally, since everything is viewed through objects, OOP usually requires careful planning on how development will progress.
2. OOP produces a bigger program size compared to some others
Programs created using object-oriented programming are larger compared to those that use procedural or other approaches. To clarify, programs based on objects usually have more lines of code than some that use a different paradigm.
3. Programs are slower than procedure-based ones
It’s easy to guess where the previous point leads. The increased size combined with the need to issue more guidelines or instructions and include libraries means object-based programs execute slower than, for instance, those made using a procedural approach.
4. Not applicable to all programming projects
While OOP programming languages are popular, they are not universal. In other words, object-based programming cannot provide a solution to all kinds of problems and doesn’t suit all programming styles. Therefore, it’s often more efficient to apply logic, procedure, or functional-programming styles to solve many modern problems.